By the type of settlement, the Yukaghirs were divided into the Tundra and Taiga types. The main traditional occupation of the Tundra Yukaghirs was semi-nomadic and nomadic wild deer hunting and transport reindeer herding. And the Taiga Yukaghirs hunted moose, deer and mountain sheep, they also developed lake and riverine fishing.
The Taiga Yukaghirs from Verkhnekolymsk organized collective hunting raids on wild deer in the spring, using specially trained dogs. They chased the deer on sleds in the winter and hunted using domesticated deer as bait in the autumn. In addition to guns, the Yukaghirs continued to use their ancient weapons: a metal dart and bolas, a throwing weapon, consisting of cords with weights on the ends.
Bird hunting played a significant role. The Tundra Yukaghirs hunted geese and duck at the shores of lakes during a molting period in the autumn. The participants of the hunt were divided into two groups: one surrounded the lake with fishing nets, and the other, sitting in boats, cornered the birds deprived of the opportunity to fly into the fishing nets. The Tundra Yukaghirs hunted foxes and Arctic foxes, catching up to them on a deer sled. They tore apart Arctic foxes’ holes and acquired the puppies in the summer. Verkhnekolymsk people hunted stoats and squirrels, who were beaten with blunt arrows.
The Yukaghirs were engaged in fishing from late spring to autumn, while using hair nets to catch perch, nelma, broad whitefish, omul, muksun. They would get the fish with hooks on the spawning grounds. In the mountain rivers They put fences and bow nets woven from willow in the river mountains. In October-November, when fishing from the ice hole, hair nets were used.
The Tundra Yukaghirs began to spread reindeer herding around the XVI century. Reindeer herding played a role of a transport. The number of deer were small: from 2-3 to 10-20. But the rich Yukaghirs could own up to 1000 deer.
Jochelson W. The Yukaghir and Yukaghirized Tungus. - Novosibirsk: Nauka, 2005. 675 p.
Gogolev A.I. History of Yakutia - Yakutsk: NEFU Publishing House, 2013. -324 p.
Peoples of the North-East of Siberia - Moscow: Moskva: Nauka, 2010. 773 p.
Photo from the webpage https://ok.ru/kraterershota/topic/65539663664635
Photos from the Magadansky columnist webpage: https://magadansky.livejournal.com/114193.html
Photos from W. Jochelson’s book The Yukaghir and Yukaghirized Tungus. - Novosibirsk: Nauka, 2005. 675 p.