Women reindeer herder


children with a herd of dee

             Before the arrival of Russians, all peoples of Yakutia had clan relations.  Among the Evens, the concept of the genus was associated with the concept of a common origin and a common fire-outbreak, and is also associated with the customs of blood feud and mutual assistance.  So, for the insult, mutilation or death of a relative, the whole family of the victim was avenged, and according to the custom of the nimat, which was already mentioned above, the hunter had to give the hunted beast along with the skin to the inhabitants of the camp, after which the meat was shared among all members of the family.

            Large animals hunters of the genus collectively collect.  Nimat also extended mainly to members of the nomadic group, which was the main social unit and a kind of economic unit of the Even family.  On the whole, the Even family was based on a common origin, and its main functions were to protect relatives from external attacks and regulate marriage.

            By the 18th century  The formation of administrative clans in Evens, which began to include, in addition to blood relatives, and neighbors in the territory of residence, refers.

            The social roles of each Even were determined by the age and gender stratification on which the internal structure of Even society was based.  Evens, like many other indigenous peoples of the North, are characterized by a very soft attitude, a special love for children: they are the "eyes" of the mother, the "soul" of the father.  Evenki children did not know what physical punishment was, adults showed respect for them from early childhood: a guest who entered the house shook hands even with young children if they already knew how to walk.  The child was given a name when, according to his babble, the family guessed the name of the relative who embodied in him, and only close relatives could contact the child by this name.  After baptism at the age of 3-5, the Orthodox name became official, and the traditional was used in the home circle.  Through games that mimic the main types of adult activity in accordance with gender, the socialization of children took place.  Upon reaching 7-8 years old, children began to be introduced to the main types of activities and housekeeping: boys began to be taken for close hunting or for grazing deer, girls comprehended the basics of housekeeping, from 14-15 years old boys could hunt on their own.

             Evens began their marriageable age at 16-17, and early marriages were possible.  In the case of absence or loss of parents, the upbringing of children was entrusted to relatives, the custom of avant-garde was widespread (relatives on the part of the mother, especially uncles, play a decisive role in matters of raising nephews and material support for relatives, which historians characterize as remnants of a matriarchal marriage).  At the time of the marriage, he was necessarily paid with a dun, usually deer.  In the Even family, clear spheres of the division of labor were adopted, but equality was respected in making family-wide decisions.  Women had a high status in public life, but in the economic and property spheres, in conditions of patriarchal relations and social differentiation, a man occupied a dominant position.  In the Evens' public life, the older generation, experts and guardians of tradition, enjoyed constant respect and authority.  The elder of the clan, the local group was assigned the functions of organizer of economic and social life.

Источники и фото из кн.: Алексеев, А.А. Эвены Верхоянья: история и культура (конец XIX – 80-е гг.ХХ в.) / А.А. Алексеев. – СПб: ВВМ, 2006.

Гоголев, А.И. История Якутии: учеб. пособие для вузов / А.И. Гоголев. - 2-е изд., доп. – Якутск: Изд. дом СВФУ, 2013.