The social roles of each Even were determined by the age and gender stratification on which the internal structure of Even society was based.  Evens, like many other indigenous peoples of the North, are characterized by a very soft attitude, a special love for children: they are the "eyes" of the mother, the "soul" of the father.  Evenki children did not know what physical punishment was, adults showed respect for them from early childhood: a guest who entered the house shook hands even with young children if they already knew how to walk.  The child was given a name when, according to his babble, the family guessed the name of the relative who embodied in him, and only close relatives could contact the child by this name.  After baptism at the age of 3-5, the Orthodox name became official, and the traditional was used in the home circle.  Through games that mimic the main types of adult activity in accordance with gender, the socialization of children took place.  Upon reaching 7-8 years old, children began to be introduced to the main types of activities and housekeeping: boys began to be taken for close hunting or for grazing deer, girls comprehended the basics of housekeeping, from 14-15 years old boys could hunt on their own.

               Evens began their marriageable age at 16-17, and early marriages were possible.  In the case of absence or loss of parents, the upbringing of children was entrusted to relatives, the custom of avant-garde was widespread (relatives on the part of the mother, especially uncles, play a decisive role in matters of raising nephews and material support for relatives, which historians characterize as remnants of a matriarchal marriage).  At the time of the marriage, he was necessarily paid with a dun, usually deer.  In the Even family, clear spheres of the division of labor were adopted, but equality was respected in making family-wide decisions.  Women had a high status in public life, but in the economic and property spheres, in conditions of patriarchal relations and social differentiation, a man occupied a dominant position.  In the Evens' public life, the older generation, experts and guardians of tradition, enjoyed constant respect and authority.  The elder of the clan, the local group was assigned the functions of organizer of economic and social life

 

Источники:   Алексеева, С.А. Традиционная семья у эвенов Якутии: (конец XIX в.- начало ХХ в.): историко-этнографический аспект / С.А. Алексеева. – Новосибирск: Наука, 2008.

NarodyArktiki 2019